Name Default weight

Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA


Kim, D., Thoma, G., Nutter, D., Milani, F., Ulrich, R., & Norris, G. (2013). Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(5), 1019-1035.

Method abstract: SimaPro© 7.3 (PRé Consultants, The Netherlands, 2013) was used as the primary modeling software. The ecoinvent life cycle inventory database was used for background unit processes (Frischknecht and Rebitzer, J Cleaner Prod 13(13–14):1337–1343, 2005), modified to incorporate US electricity (EarthShift 2012). Operational data was collected from 17 cheese-manufacturing plants representing 24 % of mozzarella production and 38 % of cheddar production in the USA. Incoming raw milk, cream, or dry milk solids were allocated to coproducts by mass of milk solids. Plant-level engineering assessments of allocation fractions were adopted for major inputs such as electricity, natural gas, and chemicals. Revenue-based allocation was applied for the remaining in-plant processes.


Default weight: 10

Peer reviewed: Yes
Number of products: Below 5
Meta study: No
Commissioned: No
Year of study: After 2005
Methodology described: Yes
Reputation of source: High


Product Notes Country origin Country consumption