Name Default weight

Large-scale regionalised LCA shows that plant-based fat spreads have a lower climate, land occupation and water scarcity impact than dairy butter


Study seems to be commissioned by Upfield, a global company owning multiple brands of margarine, food spreads, and plant-based foods, including Flora and Blue Band.

Also found as: Upfield plant-based spreads and margarine vs. dairy butter

Method abstract:
A framework for conducting a large-scale regionalised LCA was developed and applied to compare the environmental impacts of 212 plant-based fat spreads, 16 plant-based creams and 40 dairy alternatives sold in 21 countries per 1 kg of product. Data was compiled for different product recipes, key ingredient sourcing countries, production factory locations, energy mixes, packaging designs, transportation and end-of-life scenarios. Spatially (archetype) differentiated agricultural life cycle inventory data were generated, as well as LUC emissions for agricultural ingredients. A total of 18 environmental indicators were assessed.


Default weight: 5


Product Country origin Country consumption
Margarine Unknown Unknown
Butter Unknown Unknown