Product CO2e / kg Studies


CO2e / kg
= 100 g of Rice
You can consume
kg of Rice to exhaust your daily CO2e food budget

Categories: Grains | Food

Rice production is responsible for ~1.5% of global GHG emissions, mostly due to its high methane emission1. As oxygen cannot access the soil in the flooded rice fields, bacteria that emit methane grow abundantly. Although alternative growing methods are investigated that could reduce such emissions by up to 90%, practical challenges and potentially lower rice yields have thus far lead to little advances along these lines.

About 70% of the emissions from rice come from methane released by the rice paddies2. A further ~15% are emitted from energy consumption for the irrigation systems.

A regular serving of cooked rice is about 1 cup or 200-220 grams3, which corresponds to about 75 grams of uncooked rice4. With an emission factor of about 2.6 kg CO2e / kg, this amounts to 0.2 kg CO2e / serving.

  1. More Rice, Less Methane. Tim Searchinger and Richard Waite. World resource institute. 16 Dec 2014., accessed: 6 Nov 2022 

  2. Aguilera, E., Guzmán, G., & Alonso, A. (2015). Greenhouse gas emissions from conventional and organic cropping systems in Spain. I. Herbaceous crops. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35(2), 713-724. 

  3. How Much Rice Per Person is Required? John Bird. Boat basin cafe. 27 Jul 2021., accessed: 6 Nov 2022 

  4. How much heavier is cooked rice than uncooked? Let's eat?, accessed: 6 Nov 2022 

Subcategories: Rice (eco) | Risotto rice | Brown rice | Rice (cooked)


Source Notes CO2e Country origin Country consumption Weight
Rice intensification in Bangladesh improves economic and environmental welfare Table 3 (TYV, aman).
Traditional yield variety (TYV), aman (monsoon) season.
The aman season has historically been the primary rice season in terms of hectares planted given the high amounts of precipitation during the monsoons.
During the aman season, farmers generally plant TYV rice and rely solely on rainfall for irrigation.
Bangladesh Bangladesh 10
Environmental life cycle assessment of rice production in northern Italy: a case study from Vercelli More than 80% comes from irrigation, of which most comes from methane emissions of the rice paddies.
Italy Italy 10
A case study to estimate the greenhouse-gas mitigation potential on conventional rice production system
South Korea South Korea 10
Carbon footprint for paddy rice production in Egypt
Egypt Egypt 10
Potentialities of organic and sustainable rice production in Japan from a life cycle perspective conventional farming; 1.34 for sustainable farming
Japan Japan 10
Greenhouse gas implications of novel and conventional rice production technologies in the Eastern-Gangetic plains Average over the 4 methods:
I. Conventional puddled transplanting with low residue retention (CTLR): 1.33
II. Conventional puddled transplanting with high residue retention (CTHR): 1.57
III. Unpuddled transplanting with low residue retention (UTLR): 1.11
IV. Unpuddled transplanting with high residue retention (UTHR): 1.19
India India 10
How low can we go? An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the UK food system and the scope reduction by 2050 Rice, paddy
Unknown United Kingdom 4
Greenhouse gas emissions from conventional and organic cropping systems in Spain. I. Herbaceous crops Table 2, rice, conventional
Spain Spain 10
RISE Open access list 1.7 Per kg unboiled jasmin rice
Thailand Sweden 5
RIVM Database Milieubelasting Voedingsmiddelen Rijst, witte
Unknown Netherlands 5
Carbon footprints of rice production in five typical rice districts in China Average of the 5 provinces = 1.9
The CFs of rice productions in these five provinces were 2504.20 kgCO2-eq./t (kg carbondioxide equation per ton rice) (Guangdong province), 2326.47 kgCO2-eq./t (Hunan province), 1889.97 kgCO2-eq./t (Heilongjiang province), 1538.90 kgCO2-eq./t (Sichuan province) and 1344.92 kgCO2-eq./t (Jiangsu province) respectively.
China Unknown 10
Ökologische Fußabdrücke von Lebensmitteln und Gerichten in Deutschland (IFEU) Reis
Unknown Germany 6
Environmental impact of plant-based foods Climate impact in the studies varies between 0.5-2.0 kg CO2e per kg edible product. All data-points were considered relevant for the Swedish market, indicating that the climate impact of rice can vary greatly, but some studies show that climate impact is likely to be approximately 2 kg CO2e per kg edible product. European rice may have a lower impact (below 1 kg CO2e per kg edible product), but only two studies investigated emissions from European rice production.. Studies: 14
Unknown Unknown 6
Klimatarier CO2 Rechner Reis
Unknown Unknown 5
Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products Table 1; including waste; excluding waste: 3.74
Unknown Unknown 8
Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories Table 5 Median; #LCA studies: 12; #GWP values: 27; Mean: 2.66; Stdev: 1.29; Min: 0.66; Max: 5.69
Unknown Unknown 8
Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers Figure 1, flooded, 1000 kcal,
Unknown Unknown 8
Mat-klimat-listan variation 1.5-3 kgCO2/kg
Unknown Sweden 6


*only recipes with more than 50 grams of Rice are shown.