Product CO2e / kg Studies


CO2e / kg
= 100 g of Milk
You can consume
kg of Milk to exhaust your daily CO2e food budget

Categories: Dairy | Food

About half the emissions from dairy production is from methane produced in the cattle's stomach1. Manure accounts for about a quarter of the emissions, while feed contributes about 15-20%. Energy consumption and postfarm emissions represent less than 10% of the emissions in total.

  1. Opio, C., Gerber, P., Mottet, A., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G., MacLeod, M., ... & Steinfeld, H. (2013). Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant supply chains–A global life cycle assessment. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. (Figure 5) 

Subcategories: Sheep milk | Milk (ESL) | Buttermilk | Goat milk | Milk (UHT) | Milk (low-fat) | Milk (eco) | Skim milk | Mini milk


Source Notes CO2e Country origin Country consumption Weight
RIVM Database Milieubelasting Voedingsmiddelen Melk, volle
Unknown Netherlands 7
Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant supply chains regional emissions range from 1.6 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM to 9.0 kg CO2-eq/kg. Lower in affluent countries due to better feed, genetics and animal health.
Unknown Unknown 10
Life Cycle Impacts of Proteinrich Foods for Superwijzer conventional, whole milk
Unknown Unknown 10
Greenhouse gas emissions from Swedish production of meat, milk and eggs 1990 and 2005 Supplement 9, Table 4a: milk production 2005; at farm gate
Sweden Sweden 10
The Alpro Sustainable Development Report 2013
Unknown Unknown 5
Den store klimadatabase Milk, whole, 3.5 % fat, Agriculture: 0.48, iLUC: 0.06, Food processing: 0.06, Packaging: 0.08, Transport: 0.11
Unknown Unknown 7
Mat-klimat-listan Variation 0.8-2.5
Unknown Sweden 5
Klimatarier CO2 Rechner Milch
Unknown Unknown 5
Pendos CO2-Zähler Milch
Unknown Unknown 5
Meat eater's guide to climate change + health Table 14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Milk Production (at farmgate)
Milk Production System kg of CO2e per kg of edible whole milk kg of CO2e per kg of edible 2% milk
Wisconsin (high productivity)
1.02 0.67
Idaho 1.10
Table 15. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Milk (2%) Consumption (post-farmgate)
Emission Source kg of CO2e per kg of consumed 2% milk
Processing 0.48
Domestic transport 0.30
Refrigeration (retail) 0.06
Home cooking 0.00
Waste disposal 0.14
Total 0.98
Per kg of consumed meat (includes waste loss and post-farmgate):
Not listed, but calculated as 1.06*1.44+0.98=2.5 kg CO2e
FiBL CO2-Fußabdruck von Bioprodukten Murauer, 3,5% fat, Konventionell; Production: 1.157; Transport: 0.06; Packaging: 0.059;
Austria Austria 5
Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change domestic, 4% fat; CO2: 0.45, NO2: 0.14, NH4: 0.45
Sweden Sweden 10
Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers Figure 1
Unknown Unknown 10
Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories Table 4 Median; #LCA studies: 77; #GWP values: 262; Mean: 1.39; Stdev: 0.58; Min: 0.54; Max: 7.5
Unknown Unknown 10