|Product||CO2e / kg||Studies|
About 60-70% of the CO2e emissions are from the milk production1. To make 1 kg of cheese between 4 and 8 liters of milk are needed, depending on the type of cheese, with softer, young cheeses requiring less milk than harder, aged cheeses2.
Manufacturing (10-20%), retail (5-10%) and consumption (5-10%) make up the majority of the remaining emissions.
Kim, D., Thoma, G., Nutter, D., Milani, F., Ulrich, R., & Norris, G. (2013). Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(5), 1019-1035. Fig 3 (cheddar) and Fig 4 (mozzarella) ↩
Subcategories: Edam cheese | Gouda cheese | Cheese (eco) | Emmentaler | Cheese (soft) | Cheese (hard) | Cheese (medium-hard) | Buffalo mozzarella | Ricotta | Cheddar | Goat cheese | Blue cheese | Brie | Danish blue | Feta | Grana padano | Asiago cheese | Parmesan cheese | Camembert | Alpine cheese | Mozzarella | Cottage cheese | Cheese (smoked)
|Source||Notes||CO2e||Country origin||Country consumption||Weight|
|RISE Open access list 1.7||Per kg cheese, 31% fat||
|Violife 100% vegan alternative to cheese vs. dairy cheese in Europe, UK, US and Canada.||Table 1, page 5. Average over 8 cheese types (mozzarella, cheddar, cream cheese, feta)||
|Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Swedish semi-hard cheese||Hushållsost||
|RIVM Database Milieubelasting Voedingsmiddelen||Kaas, 20+||
|Ökologische Fußabdrücke von Lebensmitteln und Gerichten in Deutschland (IFEU)||Käse, Durchschnitt||
|Den store klimadatabase||Cheese, firm, Danbo, 45 % fidm., Agriculture: 4.46, iLUC: 0.46, Food processing: 2.33, Packaging: 0.35, Transport: 0.12||
|Mat-klimat-listan||variation 6-11 kgCo2/kg||
|Klimatarier CO2 Rechner||Käse||
|Eco-efficiency in the production chain of Dutch semi-hard cheese||Production of 1 kg cheese resulted in a GWP of 8.5 kg CO2-eq., and required 6.8 m2 land and 47.2 MJ energy. Of all stages, on-farm milk production contributed most to GWP (65%), and to land use (58%), followed by cultivation of concentrate ingredients (12% to GWP and 24% to land use).
The type of cheese we studied was eight-week old, semihard cheese, which is the most popular cheese in the Netherlands (Voedingscentrum, 2009).
|Meat eater's guide to climate change + health||Table 16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Domestic Cheese Production (at farmgate)
Cheese Production System kg of CO2e per kg of edible cheese
Table 17. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Domestic Cheese Consumption (post-farmgate)
Emission Source kg of CO2e per kg of consumed cheese
Domestic transport 0.30
Refrigeration (retail) 0.05
Home cooking 0.00
Waste disposal 0.10
Per kg of consumed cheese (includes moisture loss, waste loss and post-farmgate): 13.47 kg CO2e
|Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change||domestic; CO2: 5, NO2: 1.3, NH4: 4.5||
|Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products||Table 1; 30+, 31% fat; including waste; excluding waste: 9.23||
|Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products||Table 1; 20+ 17% fat; including waste; excluding waste: 8.47||
|Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers||Figure 1||
|Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories||Table 5 Median; #LCA studies: 22; #GWP values: 38; Mean: 8.86; Stdev: 2.07; Min: 5.33; Max: 16.35||