Product CO2e / kg Studies


CO2e / kg
= 100 g of Butter
You can consume
kg of Butter to exhaust your daily CO2e food budget

Categories: Dairy | Food

To make butter, about 20-25 liters of milk are needed [1][2] with 80-85% of the CO2e emissions coming from the raw milk production. The large variation in CO2e estimations for butter are a result of different ways in which the CO2e of milk is allocated according to fat and protein content.

For example, in Flysjö 2011, a ratio of 1:1.7 is used between fat and protein content to allocate emissions based on market value [4]. This means that only ~40% of the CO2e of the milk are allocated to the butter in this study, as butter is typically 80% fat and 4% protein. The rest of the emissions are then allocated to other milk products high in protein such as buttermilk. For Flysjö 2011, this leads to about 9 kg CO2e / kg of butter, while other studies report values well over 20 kg CO2e / kg.

[3] Flysjö, A. (2011). Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products. Journal of dairy science, 94(12), 5833-5841.
[4] Fat and protein each make up about 4% of the milk weight. The remainder of the milk is 87% water and 5% lactose, neither of which has much market value.

Subcategories: Butter (eco)


Source CO2e Country origin Country consumption Weight
Large-scale regionalised LCA shows that plant-based fat spreads have a lower climate, land occupation and water scarcity impact than dairy butter
Unknown Unknown 5
Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products
Denmark Denmark 10
Den store klimadatabase
Unknown Unknown 10
Unknown Unknown 5
Klimatarier CO2 Rechner
Unknown Unknown 5
Pendos CO2-Zähler
Unknown Unknown 5
FiBL CO2-Fußabdruck von Bioprodukten
Austria Austria 5
Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories
Unknown Unknown 10